Internet Network

Definition of Modem: 

Traditional modems used on dialup networks convert data between the analog form used on telephone lines and the digital form used on computers. Standard dial-up network modems transmit data at a maximum rate of 56,000 bits per second (56 Kbps). However, inherent limitations of the public telephone network limit modem data rates to 33.6 Kbps or lower in practice.

Broadband modems that are part of high-speed Internet services use more advanced signaling techniques to achieve dramatically higher network speeds than traditional modems. Broadband modems are sometimes called "digital modems" and those used for traditional dial-up networking, "analog modems." Cellular modems are a type of digital modem that establishes Internet connectivity between a mobile device and a cell phone network.

Creation of Internet: 

No single person or organization created the modern Internet, including Al Gore, Lyndon Johnson, or any other individual. Instead, multiple people developed the key technologies that later grew to become the Internet:

Email - Long before the World Wide Web, email was the dominant communication method on the Internet. Ray Tomlinson developed in 1971 the first email system that worked over the early Internet.

Ethernet - The physical communication technology underlying the Internet, Ethernet was created by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in 1973.

TCP/IP - In May, 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection." The paper's authors - Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn - described a protocol called TCP that incorporated both connection-oriented and datagram services. This protocol later became known as TCP/IP.

Definition of TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two distinct network protocols, technically speaking. TCP and IP are so commonly used together, however, that TCP/IP has become standard terminology to refer to either or both of the protocols.

IP corresponds to the Network layer (Layer 3) in the OSI model, whereas TCP corresponds to the Transport layer (Layer 4) in OSI. In other words, the term TCP/IP refers to network communications where the TCP transport is used to deliver data across IP networks.

The average person on the Internet works in a predominately TCP/IP environment. Web browsers, for example, use TCP/IP to communicate with Web servers.

Also Known As: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

Definition of Routers: 

Routers are small physical devices that join multiple networks together. Technically, a router is a Layer 3 gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more networks and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model.

Home networks typically use a wireless or wired Internet Protocol (IP) router, IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet.

By maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the routing table, wired or wireless routers also have the ability to filter traffic, either incoming or outgoing, based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers. Some routers allow a network administrator to update the routing table from a Web browser interface. Broadband routers combine the functions of a router with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single unit.

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