Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Different Types of WiFi Network Topologies

All networks, whether wired or wireless, have some kind of topology, defined as the network's shape or structure. A wired network's topology is physical and conforms to the layout of cabling in the network. Wireless network topology, on the other hand, is a logical topology conforming to the way the member computers connect and interact with each other, as there is no cable connecting the computers.

Wireless Network Topologies.
In a wireless network, all participating computers potentially communicate with each other directly. Wireless networks therefore have only two topologies: infrastructure and ad hoc. This is a direct and natural result of the non-physical nature of interaction of computers in a wireless network.

Infrastructure Network Topology
The infrastructure wireless network topology is a hub and spoke topology, also known as a point to multipoint or one to many topology. In the infrastructure topology, there is a single central wireless access point (WAP). The WAP acts as the hub in the network, with all the other computers (or spokes) connecting to it.

Ad Hoc Network Topology
An ad hoc wireless network topology is a many to many (or multipoint to multipoint) topology. There is no central access point in an ad hoc network structure; every computer in the network communicates directly with every other computer in the network. Ad hoc wireless network topologies are essentially mesh networks.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Wireless Network Topologies
The ad hoc topology has the advantage of not requiring a central access point or WAP. However, this also means that only a few security modes and much lower network speeds are available on such networks. Typically, only wired equivalent privacy (WEP) and a maximum speed of 11 megabits per second are implemented on ad hoc networks. Infrastructure networks, on the other hand, require the extra equipment of a central WAP. However, this brings the advantage of higher speeds and stronger security to such networks.

Wireless networks fall into only two types of network topologies: infrastructure and ad hoc. Each of these typologies has its own advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for different usage situations. The infrastructure topology is typically used for permanent networks, while the ad hoc topology is used for temporary networks.

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Thursday, October 17, 2013

Guide to Boost your Wireless Network Signals

Reposition your router or access point (AP) to avoid obstructions and radio interference. Both reduce the range of Wi-Fi network equipment. Common sources of interference in residences include brick or plaster walls, microwave ovens, and cordless phones. Additionally, consider changing the Wi-Fi channel number on your equipment to avoid interference.

upgrade the antenna on your router or access point. Wi-Fi antennas on most wireless base stations can be removed and replaced with more powerful ones.

add another access point (or router). Large residences typically require no more than two APs, whereas businesses may employ dozens of APs. In a home, this option requires connecting your primary wireless router (access point) to the second one with Ethernet cable; home wireless routers and/or APs don't normally communicate with each other directly.

add a bi-directional Wi-Fi signal amplifier to wireless devices as needed. A Wi-Fi signal amplifier (sometimes called "signal booster") attaches to a router, access point or Wi-Fi client at the place where the antenna connects. Bi-directional antennas amplify the wireless signal in both transmit and receive directions. These should be used as Wi-Fi transmissions are two-way radio communications.

add a Wi-Fi repeater. A wireless repeater is a stand-alone unit positioned within range of a wireless router or access point. Repeaters (sometimes called "range expanders") serve as a two-way relay station for Wi-Fi signals. Clients too far away from the original router or AP can instead associate with the same local wireless network through the repeater.
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Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Steps to Set up a WiFi Router to Use with Your Laptop

In general, the process of installing a WiFi device to use with your laptop begins by connecting the router to the same computer that is attached to your broadband modem (in this example, your laptop); this allows automated configuration software to obtain the information it needs without any intermediary devices along the way.

Here is a typical setup:

-  Turn off the power to your broadband modem.

-   If there isn’t an on/off switch, remove the power supply to the device.

-   Connect the power adapter to the back panel of the wireless router.

-   Plug the adapter into an AC outlet.

-   Check that the power LED illuminates.

-   Connect an Ethernet cable to the broadband modem.

-   Restore the power to the modem.

-   Insert the other end of the Ethernet cable into the WAN (wide area network) port on the back panel of the wireless router.

-   Insert another Ethernet cable between LAN Port 1 (on the back panel of the wireless router) and any available Ethernet port on the NIC (network interface card) of the laptop, which you’re going to use to configure the WiFi system.

-   Shut down the laptop.

-   Restart the laptop connected to the WiFi router.

-   Let Windows fully load.

-   Open your Web browser.

-   In the address bar of the browser, type the URL for the built-in setup screen of the wireless router.

-   For example, type http://192.168.0.1 for most D-Link routers.

-   Press the Enter key.

    The below table shows a list of the standard addresses for setup screens as well as default usernames and passwords from several major makers.





Router Manufacturer
URL
Default User Name
Default Password
3com
http://192.168.1.1
admin
Admin
D-Link
http://192.168.0.1
admin

Linksys
http://192.168.1.1
admin
Admin
Microsoft
http://192.168.2.1
admin
Admin
Netgear
http://192.168.0.1
admin
password



Depending on your device maker, you may have to enter a user name such as admin (for administrator), and you may have to enter a password.







The opening screen of the setup utility for a Linksys wired router.


Consult the instructions for details. Once you log in, the home screen of the built-in setup system appears.

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Monday, October 14, 2013

What is an Internet server?


Internet server (web server) - this is a special computer, which is constantly switched on and connected to the Internet so that each Internet user around the world can access your website at all times. This computer is built up with selected high quality components, which can endure incessant work and high load.

Depending on the expected load and the type of services, which this computer will provide, different configurations can be set up. As far as database hosting is concerned, for example, a multiprocessor solution combined with small-sized but very fast and stable hard disks would do just great, whereas a single processor configuration with many large size hard disks would be apt with file/image hosting. To ensure better Internet connectivity, the given server is stored in a data center, where it is mounted into a special rack, which offers good ventilation and easy maintenance.

Putting the machine itself in a data center and connecting it to the Internet do not automatically make it an "Internet server". For this purpose, specific web server software has to be installed on it and configured according to the given platform. Among the most popular web server packages are: Apache Server, Microsoft ISS, Google GWS, lighttpd, nginx. After the installation and configuration of the web server software, FTP, E-mail, DNS, database, etc. software packages can be added as well.

Depending on the manner the given sever is organized and the services it's offering, it can be a separate independent system or a part of a hosting platform
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Saturday, October 12, 2013

HOW TO CREATE GHOST IMAGE OF WINDOWS 7 & WINDOWS 8 (32bit and 64 bit)...

STEPS TO CREATE WINDOWS 7 & WINDOWS 8 GHOST IMAGE:

1st Review following things BEFORE YOU START.
(Consider C drive as your Window drive)

1. You have Hiren's Boot CD 10+ version
Download Hiren's Boot CD here

After download burn Hiren Boot .iso image to a CD using any CD burner.

2. You must have spare space available on any drive other than C drive or external USB Disk for C drive backup. (Check Properties of C drive for used space)

3. You should be aware that Windows-7 usually installs on two partitions i.e. C partition and a hidden partition (system) see image below:




So you have to make image of both "system" and "C " partitions.

Let's Start making ghost of your windows 7...Follow following steps.

Before you start make sure you have plugged in your external USB drive if you want to creat ghost image on external USB drive.

1. Insert you Hiren's Bootable CD into cd room, reboot and boot your machine from CD ROM. (check your BIOS settings for boot device priority
.
2. At welcom screen of hirens cd select "mini windows xp" option.




3. At welcome screen of hirens cd select "mini windows xp" option. wait until desktop of mini window appears.

4. double click "HBCD Menu icon" on desktop




5. Go to Menu>Backup>Ghost32 (Click, yes, OK)







6. After Ghost starts go to "Local > Partition > To Image"




7. Select your Hard disk from the list where on which your windows 7 is installed & press OK.




8. Now Select your Window-7 Partition i.e. C parition from the list & press ok.
Note: You will see a primary partition named "System" at top of partition list which may be about 100 to 200 mb in size.




9. Brows to the loaction where you want to save your window's ghost image, give name to the image and press save. (select any compression option i.e. No/Fast/High. I use No). After clicking NO proceed with yes.




10. Image creation starts with percentage. After 100% completed click continue.




Ghost of C drive has been completed.


Now you have to make ghost of "system" partition same as you have made ghost of C drive.
To create image of "system" partition follow step 1 to 8 then select "system" partition from the list and follow step 9 to 10.
(So you have image of two partitions i.e. "system" & "C" partition for windows 7 image backup).


That's all creating windows-7 ghost. (Please Put Your Comments....Thanks)
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Wednesday, October 9, 2013

How to Install Windows 8 in Virtual Box

How to Install Windows 8 in Virtual Box


Ever want to try the latest and greatest iteration of you favourite operating system? In such cases, virtualisation is your friend. It allows you to easily try out a new operating system without making any changes to your existing operating system. VirtualBox is the most popular free virtualisation solution available, and this tutorial will teach you how to install Windows 8 in VirtualBox.

Step 1: 

Acquire the software: For instructions on how to download and install virtual box follow This link. Windows 8 it is available on Microsoft’s web page here Make sure you download the iso.




Step 2:

Once virtual box is installed and Windows 8 is downloaded, open virtual box and select new machine.




Step 3:

Type in Windows 8 into the text box or whatever you want to name the Operating System. Once this is done, select windows on the first scroll menu than select Windows 8 from the version box (second scroll box).



Step 4:

When the setup wizard asks you how much ram to give the machine giving the machine the default ram should be fine but if you have surplus or limited ram adjusting the slider is fine.



Step 5: 

Now when the wizard asks about a new virtual hard disk do not select anything. Simply select next.



Step 6:

Next the wizard will ask what type of virtual hard drive you want select VDI or virtual box disk image than select next.( virtual box disk image should be selected by default)



Step 7:

Now the wizard will ask you to set the disk space for the hard drive you may select dynamically allocated or a fixed size. You may choose either but often fixed size is better as it is faster and stabler.



Step 8:

Now select the size of the disk as a minimum 20 gigabytes should be selected but the more space the merrier.



Step 9:

When the summery page is brought up select create and wait as this may take a while.



Step 10:

Now launch your virtual machine by opening virtual box and clicking on the machine.




Step 11:

When a dialog box appears select your Windows8 iso.



Step 12:

Now is the easy part simply follow the on screen instructions and enjoy you cutting edge new OS.



Check Points:

- Allocate more than 1 GB of Ram to Windows 8.

- Windows 8 working in VirtualBox is not proof that it is compatible with your computer.

- Make sue you are running the latest version of VirtualBox.

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Making a Bootable USB with Windows 7

Making a Bootable USB with Windows 7 


Tonight I had a DVD with Windows 7 that used to work, but it wasn’t anymore. So I pulled out my trusty USB stick with a bootable copy of Windows 7 on it … alas that drive had gone through the wash a while back and finally kicked the bucket. I was determined not to strike out 3 times, so I decided to make a new USB bootable device. The steps are pretty easy to create a USB stick that boot up the Windows 7 setup from an ISO image, so I figured I would share the love.

   - Grab a a Windows 7 ISO image and extract it to a folder (not on the USB stick)
   - You can use a lot of programs, many of them free, to extract from an ISO. I use 7zip.
   -  Grab a 4GB USB stick
  - Format the USB stick with NTFS using the “quick format”. (You can do this via Windows Explorer)
   - Open a CMD prompt (run it as administrator)
   - Run DISKPART
   - Select the volume for the USB stick. First enter LIST VOL to show the list.
   - Then enter SELECT VOL x where x is the volume number from the list
   - Mark the volume as active by entering ACTIVE 
   - Enter EXIT to quit the DISKPART command line (but do not close the CMD prompt window)
   - In the CMD prompt window, go to the location where you extracted the Windows 7 files on your computer
   - Go into the BOOT folder
   - Type BOOTSECT /NT60 <drive letter>: where the drive letter is the USB drive.
   - Example BOOTSECT /NT60 G:
   - Copy all of the files you extracted for Windows 7 to the USB stick

  - On the computer you want to install Windows 7, go to your BIOS and make sure that boot from USB is enabled and in the correct position in the boot sequence.

Once all files are copied to the USB stick, you can plug the USB stick into a computer and boot from it to run Windows 7 setup.

Hope this helps!

Monday, October 7, 2013

How To Install Windows 7 On MacBook Pro With Retina Display [Tutorial]

Mac OS X is no doubt an ultimate OS but when it comes to gaming and other software, Windows is the most widely supported platform. So for those who have MacBook Pro Retina and wants to enjoy the latest games at 2880 x 1800 resolution gaming, you can install Microsoft Windows 7 on MacBook Pro Retina with several simple steps. Follow this instruction you do not need remove the Mac OS X, you can have both Mac OS X and Windows 7 on your rMBP. Apple has provided a utility named Boot Camp to install Windows 7 on Mac OS X. It will cost about 2 hours to install Windows 7 alongside the native OS X installation by following the instruction.

Requirement:
1. USB Flash Drive(Minimum 4GB)
2. 64 bits Windows 7 Installation iso image.(you can find it from Internet then download it)
3. Internet Connection.

Step 1: Locate and run the built-in Boot Camp Assistant package that comes as part of OS X. Boot Camp Assistant can be invoked a number of different ways. Select Spotlight from the Finder bar at the top of the display and search for Boot Camp before selecting the required app. Alternatively, users can enter the Launchpad screen and search for Boot Camp Assistant manually that way.




Step 2: The Boot Camp Assistant interface provides the necessary steps that are involved in installing a fully functioning version of Windows 7 on the MacBook. Make sure all the relevant option boxes are ticked before selecting the Continue option on the bottom right of the display.




Step 3: The next stage of the process is to create a Windows ISO image of the installation DVD. An optical drive is a requirement for this process meaning that an external drive will need to be connected to the MacBook Pro. The simple Disk Utility application in Mac OS X allows a new disk image to be created from the inserted Windows DVD.

NOTE: If you don’t have access to an external drive that can be connected to the MacBook Pro, then it is possible to create an ISO disk image using one of many free of charge utilities directly from a Windows based PC. That ISO can then be moved across to the Retina MacBook Pro for use as part of this process.

Step 4: If you are creating the ISO image directly on the Mac using the Disk Utility process then the outputted file will need to be saved as .cdr file and then manually renamed to the extension .iso.

Step 5: After the ISO image has been created and manually renamed, the next stage is to copy the file onto a USB drive that is greater than 4GB in size. In the Boot Camp Manager interface, select the option to copy the file to the USB drive to create a bootable disk.

Step 6: Anyone who has installed Windows, or even used Windows, will know that a number of drivers are required to make sure all of the hardware is functioning correctly. This is particularly relevant in this instance to ensure that the full resolution of the Retina MacBook Pro is achieved in the installation. Download all of the drivers that Apple provide via the Boot Camp Manager and copy the single file to a secondary USB drive (at least 1GB needed).




Step 7: The installation of Windows 7 doesn’t place nice with competing operating systems, making it necessary to create a partition on the hard drive of the MacBook Pro. The Boot Camp Assistant will display the partition information and you will need to assign a portion of the drive to Windows. Bear in mind that the installation itself will require approximately 30GB so choose carefully as this cannot be altered later.





Step 8: Insert the original USB pen drive into the Mac with the bootable ISO image on it. The system will reboot after the partition step above, forcing the Windows 7 installation to begin. When asked where to install Windows 7, select the partition that was created in step 7 above. Select Drive Options before selecting Format and follow the on screen instructions.

Step 9: The final step in the process is to insert the secondary USB pen and install the drivers that Apple provides to make sure everything works correctly with the Windows 7 installation. Open the USB drive and run the installer that is on the drive. When the drivers are installed the system will restart, prompting the end of the process.

So there we have it, a full installation of Windows 7 on  a Retina MacBook Pro. Deciding which operating system to boot into is as simple as holding down the Option button when the MacBook is booting up and selecting either Windows or OS X.

Sunday, October 6, 2013

Create XP / 7 Universal ghost image working on all computers


To make a universal ghost image actually is very easy, we only need two major applications namely SPAT (System Preparation Tool Assisted) and Skydriver or easy driver of sky123.org SPAT will make certain configured Windows and make skydriver or Easydriver as a detector of the necessary drivers and install them automatically when you first boot from the ghost-ghost's (and Windows parent was exposed to the same fate, so that all the drivers are already installed will be automatically deleted and removed by SPAT). So after the trial was when the restart Windows will be like ghost-ghost's, will conduct a mini setup the driver has been removed. 

Steps: 
1. Install (configure) Windows XP you as possible and as completely as possible as you wish. And remove useless files. To install applications or drivers are not a problem yet. 

2. Download two apps in question. SPAT download here, and Easydriver here. or here for windows 7 

3. Extracts may SPAT anywhere, but to Easydriver should be in C: \ Sysprep, create a folder "Sysprep" on the C: \ folder or just rename the extracted easydrivernya "Sysprep". 

4. Prepare the setup background image that will appear when the first ghost image bootable and perform the installation sysprep mini. For example setup.jpg (can 800 × 600 or 1024 × 768 24-bit format jpg). Put the pictures in the folder C: \ Sysprep (if you want to change the image, if not does not matter) 

5. Run SPAT *. EXE. We headed to the menu tab "General" and choose "select all". Click on "Background picture" and select setup.jpg that had been prepared (C: \ Sysprep \ setup.jpg). 

6. Go to the tab "Interface" and select "Run before mini-setup" and make sure you add the C: \ Sysprep \ Easydrv.exe (setup .... or any similar name of Skydriver or easydriver). 

7. Go to the tab "Reseal" and select / tick the things that you like. 

8. Back to the "General" tab and click "sysprep". 

9. Sysprep will work 2-5 minutes, allow it to stop on its own and lost his own window. Once done wait approximately 1 minute, then your Windows Shutdownlah. Prepare boot from CD or USB that is Norton Ghost or other cloning applications (eg Hiren'sboot cd or True Image). 

10. At that time the position of drive C: \ ready in cloning and save the results on another drive. Her ghost image can be used as master windows all pc and laptop / netboot that supports Windows. now the next step is to make Image with Norton Ghost 

Many differences between Windows xp with previous windows like in Windows Me, 98, or 95, in the image-making in the form of CDs / HD, where we install Windows XP on a hard drive, so it can not be used in other different motherboard . Will display blue screen, or the system is not loading at all and get to know other chip on the MB. But the way there is a simple way to solve it, a Windows XP hard drive can be used on different motherboards, even we can create image files using Norton Ghost. That in the end, they will image file can be used for another MB, to jamming ghost HD from Image / hard drive to hard drive, or other on a PC or laptop. to note are: 

- Biasany motherboard which we use to make a ghost file TSB supports ACPI. We can see in the motherboard bios. If it disable ACPI, we must re-enable it once before work begins. - Enable ACPI in the bios it. 

- Install Windows Xp along with other programs as possible and as needed. - Driver's okay installed as well. - Make it as good as possible its Windows Xp and stability. - Do not forget didefrag to further spruce up the file structure on the hard disk. 

The next step Replace the IDE type: 

- Right Click My Computer Icon on the desktop 
- Click Properties, hardware, device manager 
- In the Computer tab, update the driver manually, and change it to the Advanced Configuration
  Power Interface (ACPI) PC. 
- On the Tab IDE ATA / ATAPI Controllers, Update drivers manually, and change it to standard
  items (his 3rd) 
- Standard Dual Channel PCI IDE Controller 
- Standard IDE / ESDI Hard Disk Controller 
- Standard IDE / ESDI Hard Disk Controller 
- Restart your computer. - After getting into windows again, trim back its Windows Xp. 
- Then Shutdown. 

At this position, the hard drive they will be used in all areas ACPI motherboard. workmanship image above example as follows, do the remaining 2 the next step in the same way: OR TO SUCH OTHER THAN THE ABOVE, YOU USE THE COMPUTER CHIP NVIDIA, VGA NVIDIA, NVIDIA CHIP BECAUSE USUALLY DIRECTLY WITH DUAL CHANNEL NGENAL MAKE FILE IMAGE (GHO) NORTON GHOST. Suggested using Norton Ghost 2007. This meant that the image file that we created, can be used to jamming and jamming SATA HDD ghost-ghost via USB If the SATA HDD for Laptop dighost TSB, then disable feature is SATA (and / or related) on the laptop bios page. If not disable it, Windows Xp will repeatedly restart (failed to get into windows) Image files that we make, not the mainboard that does not support ACPI air We can use Norton Ghost 2007 on Hiren's BootCD. Either to make its image file (gho) and for jamming another hdd ghost. To be able to use Norton Ghost, it's easy. Just follow the steps there. I have this image file on the motherboard assembly test and build up, intel and AMD processors, the PC or laptop. If we want to create a file image (gho) who can work on the mainboard that do not Air ACPI then we have: 

- Disable all components (LPT, USB, Sound, etc.), except the IDE, VGA, keyboard and mouse. Disable this we do before we start the work of installation of Windows XP. - In Device Manager, Computer Tab, must tersetting Standard PC - On the Tab IDE ATA / ATAPI Controllers, same as above. 

- And do Scan for hardware changes. To insert his driver NT power management. So that the windows can power off on shutdown. If this is not done, then at the time of shutdown, the CPU does not power off. 
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Saturday, October 5, 2013

Instructions on How To Install Windows 8 From a USB Device




The need to install Windows 8 from a USB device, like a flash drive, is a common one due to the fact that many computers, especially tablets and smaller laptops and desktops, no longer have optical drives.

In other words, that Windows 8 install disc doesn't do you much good if you don't have anywhere to put the DVD! If you want to install Windows 8 from a USB device, you'll need to get those setup files onto a USB device. Unfortunately, simply copying them there won't do.

Windows 8 is also sold as a downloadable ISO file which, if you choose to buy Windows 8 that way, requires some steps to get it properly copied to a flash drive as well.

Regardless of whether you have a Windows 8 DVD you need to get on a flash drive, or a Windows 8 ISO file with the same goal, the following tutorial will help you get the Windows 8 installation files properly copied to a flash drive so you can get on with the installation process.

Note: The following procedure applies equally to Windows 8 (standard) or Windows 8 Pro, as well as those editions of Windows 8.1.

Difficulty: Average

Time Required: Getting the Windows 8 installation files onto a flash drive or other external USB device will take between 20 and 30 minutes, depending on what format your copy of Windows 8 is in right now and how fast your computer is.

Requirements:

A flash drive (4 GB or more)
A Windows 8 DVD or ISO 
Access to a working computer, with a DVD drive if you have a Windows 8 DVD, with Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, or Windows XP installed

Important: If you have a Windows 8 ISO file and want that on a flash drive, start with Step 2. If you have a Windows 8 DVD and need that on the flash drive, start with Step 1.

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